What is sugar?

Before we get into some of the trending topics like sugar free diets, no sugar diets, or keto diets, let’s start with some basics shall we?

What is sugar? Sugars are carbohydrates, and monosaccharides are the simplest sugars, or the most basic units of carbohydrates. There are three monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose and fructose are naturally occurring in fruits, vegetables, and honey. They are usually colorless, water soluble, and crystalline solids. Some have a sweet taste.

Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Sucrose (e.g. table sugar, made from glucose and fructose), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar found in malted drinks and beer) are disaccharides. Cellulose and starch are examples of polysaccharides.

Most of the common sugars that we eat are disaccharides and are a combination of two monosaccharides. Sucrose, for example, is the combination of the glucose and the fructose molecules, and is found in table sugar (granulated, super fine, or powder), fruits, and vegetables. Of all the known fruits and vegetables, only sugar cane and sugar beets have high enough amounts of sucrose for extraction.

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